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靜電除塵器產生的電場中,帶等量負電荷的兩顆微粒只受電場力作用,分別從p點沿虛線pm、pn運動,被吸附到金屬圓筒

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如圖所示,在某靜電除塵器產生的電場中,帶等量負電荷的兩顆微粒只受電場力作用,分別從p點沿虛線pm、pn運動,被吸附到金屬圓筒上。下列說法正確的是( ?。?/p>

  1. p點的電勢高于n點的電勢
  2. 微粒在p點的電勢能小于在m點的電勢能
  3. 微粒從pn的動能變化量大于從pm的動能變化量
  4. 微粒從pn的電勢能變化量等于從pm的電勢能變化量

【詳解】A.沿著電場線,電勢逐漸降低,則有,故A錯誤;

B.負電荷從pm運動電場力做正功,電勢能減小,有,故B錯誤;

C.兩微粒均只受電場力而做正功,由動能定理有qU=ΔEk

因初末電勢差相同,電量q相等,則電場力做正功相等,電勢能能減小相等,兩微粒的動能變化量相等,故C錯誤,D正確;故選D。

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